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The successive layers of rock represent successive intervals of time.Since certain species of animals existed on Earth at specific times in history, the fossils or remains of such animals embedded within those successive layers of rock also help scientists determine the age of the layers.

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Click on the following links to access these catalogs: Title Page, Table of Contents, Forward, & Acknowledgments: Chapters 1-4: 5a: 5b: 5c: 6: 7a: 7b: 7c: 8a: 8b: 8c: 9a: 9b: 10a: 10b: 10c: 11a: 11b: 11c: 12a: 12b: 12c: A: Appendix B: Appendix C: This copyrighted work is available for sale as a softbound book via

(search using "Bill Lockhart") or as a series of updated (2011) files which may be saved or printed out to make your own book for no cost...thanks Bill!

Similarly, pollen grains released by seed-bearing plants became fossilized in rock layers.

If a certain kind of pollen is found in an archaeological site, scientists can check when the plant that produced that pollen lived to determine the relative age of the site.

We also are not endorsing outside agencies and organizations by linking to them." Liquor/Spirits Bottles Wine & Champagne Bottles Beer & Ale Bottles Soda & Mineral Water Bottles Medicinal/Chemical/Druggist Bottles Food Bottles & Canning/Fruit Jars Household Bottles (non-food related) Miscellaneous & Foreign Bottles Exceptionally useful tools for determining what a particular bottle shape or type was likely used for are period bottle/glass makers illustrated catalogs.

This website provides complete scanned copies (jpegs) of several never before re-printed bottle makers catalogs covering a wide array of bottle types.In the process of disintegration, the atom gives off radiation (energy emitted in the form of waves). Each element decays at its own rate, unaffected by external physical conditions.By measuring the amount of original and transformed atoms in an object, scientists can determine the age of that object.Cosmic rays: Invisible, high-energy particles that constantly bombard Earth from all directions in space.Dendrochronology: Also known as tree-ring dating, the science concerned with determining the age of trees by examining their growth rings.The most widely used and accepted form of absolute dating is radioactive decay dating. Radioactive decay refers to the process in which a radioactive form of an element is converted into a nonradioactive product at a regular rate.