Morris is usually credited as the creator of the modern "invented world" fantasy departing from the tradition of setting fantasy stories in Arthurian Briton, fairyland or Arabian Nights-esque Arabia. Lewis brought together a group of like-minded writers who called themselves " The Inklings.
A myth deprived of this power becomes a "fairy tale," a fanciful story for children.Sometime during the 19th century a new metaphor for evil appeared which seems to be gradually replacing the idea of a literal Satan: The Machine also called The System.Geoffrey of Monmouth invented Merlin in , by combining two fictional characters: Ambrosius Aurelianus was a boy with a demon father who prophesied the defeat of the British by the Saxons, from Historia Brittonum The History of the Britons , written by Nennius in the 8th century.Some argue that Myrddin was a real person, but it's more likely he was the imaginary founder of Caer Myrddin, modern day Carmarthen.One strong influence on Gandalf from Tokien's personal life was probably his favorite aunt, Emily Jane Suffield , also known as Jane Neave through her marriage to an insurance agent named Edwin Neave, She lived in Warwickshire county, the same place Tolkien grew up and the inspiration for The Shire. Blessed are those who have them or meet them I was fortunate in having an early example: Then in , when Tolkien was 19 years old and his aunt 39, they made a backpacking tour through Switzerland "with a mixed party of about the same size as the company in The Hobbit.
In Tolkien's year-old aunt wrote to ask him "if you wouldn't get out a small book with Tom Bombadil at the heart of it.
He often said that the One Ring represents "The Machine.
Tolkien considered this will to power the root of evil.
He pointed out how much of the natural world needs to be destroyed to provide resources for a single machine remember the orcs tearing down the forest around Isengard.
In a letter to his son Christopher, Tolkien alluded to Samuel Butler's Erewhon , which warns of the possible consequences if people become too dependant on machines.
Jurgen , by James Branch Cabell: This story was banned when it came out: The story is probably famous mostly because of the scandal, and the veiled sex is a complete yawn by today's standards, so fantasy scholars might skip this one. Tolkien called Eddison "the greatest and most convincing writer of 'invented worlds' that I have ever read," though he was unimpressed with the woefully unpoetic character and place names. Tolkien stood out from the group in two ways: Invoking Gandalf Gandalf is one of the most appealing, memorable characters in Tolkien's stories.