Schumacher in 1885–86, and the Wilderness of Zin survey under T. A new Archaeological Survey of Palestine was initiated in 1937, but very little progress was made.
In July 1964 the Society for the Archaeological Survey of Israel was founded.
Archaeology has much to contribute to the contextual clarification of the later classical and medieval periods as well, and a wealth of data now exists in textbooks and scientific publications.The cut-off period for archaeological investigations in Israel used to be the late medieval period (c.The study of ancient writing is known as epigraphy, while the study of the development of individual written letter forms is known as paleography (see Alphabet ).The archaeological discipline incorporates within it numerous specialist fields of study, notably the investigation of ceramics (the study of pottery forms and manufacturing techniques over time), numismatics (the study of coins), archaeozoology (the study of animal and fish bones), and archaeobotany (the study of plant remains, pollen, and phytoliths).To understand what happened in prehistoric periods, the archaeologist is obliged to rely much more on the interpretation of physical remains such as flint tools and cultic objects, habitations and burials, the assessment of the chronological sequencing of remains at sites, while also using an array of scientific techniques to gather information about climatic and environmental changes occurring in the past.
Archaeologists dealing with the historic periods, however, are able to rely on a greater variety of artifacts and architectural remains, on the one hand, and on the discovery of written materials (notably inscriptions on durable materials, such as stone or clay tablets, and on ceramic ostraka, and to a lesser extent on organic materials, such as scrolls and papyri made of leather skins and parchment) on the other.However, the first systematic overall mapping of the country, with a regional investigation of monuments and sites possessing visible architectural remains from different periods, began with the work of the Palestine Exploration Fund and undoubtedly one of its greatest achievements was the "Survey of Western Palestine" of the early 1870s.The provided for the first time detailed topographical maps of the country to a scale of one inch to the mile, as well as a number of volumes of memoirs in which were described the sites and landscapes they encountered. Watzinger, and their book is still a basic textbook for the plans of ancient synagogues in the Holy Land.Some landscape features, however, reflect their adaptation as a physical means of advancing ideologies and strengthening power struggles and territorial conflicts. Albright once wrote that "excavation is both art and science" and M.Excavation ("dirt archaeology") is the principal method used by archaeologists in the search for information about ancient cultures. Wheeler wrote that "there is no correct method of excavation, but many wrong ones." Numerous factors contribute to the choice of a site for excavation in the Land of Israel, including its historical importance (and biblical identification), chance finds of significance, the impressiveness or accessibility of a site, and observations made during earlier archaeological investigations.An in-depth study of such remains during a project of Landscape Archaeology can lead to a chronological and contextual understanding of ancient communities and how they adapted themselves to the specific environments they inhabited.